Dr.. Khaled Hussein Abu Amsha
Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics
(PQRST) is one of the strategies for teaching the reading text – the backbone and backbone of the process of teaching Arabic to non-native speakers -; Which aims to introduce the information that the student reads into the long-term memory and remember it in an effective strategic manner, and this strategy acquires its importance as the reading process is one of the challenging skills in learning Arabic in a second or foreign language, and it needs strategic interaction, insight, clear steps, specific procedures, and attribution This method refers to Thomas and HA Robinson (Tayler, 2019), so teachers of Arabic, a second or a foreign language, should consider choosing an appropriate strategy to help their students understand their reading material and develop the process of understanding and acquiring it, which is close and very similar to the method SQ3R. The authors of this method aimed to improve the readers ’understanding of what they are reading, and to increase their ability to remember the information being read. In other words, the reader is likely to learn more from the material he is reading if he uses this method according to their belief, not to mention its ability to develop literacy proficiency in general.
Why PQRST Strategy?
Other studies have proven the feasibility of this strategy in achieving a better understanding in acquiring the skill of reading and writing in learning second and foreign languages, and its effective role in maximizing the gains and determining the priorities of information in a way that is directly related to how they need to use that information (Haeryanto, 2012 and Susanti, 2013). It is a strategy that helps to gain control over the three components of reading comprehension skill: language structures, metacognition skills, and background knowledge (Tankersly, 2003). It also helps to achieve the four principles of reading mentioned by Nation in (Esteria, w / d): inputs that focus on meaning, (2) outputs that focus on meaning, (3) learning that focuses on language, (4) development of fluency . (Champion, 2006) found that this strategy also increases the extent to which the brain processes the information that is being processed.
How does this method work?
In teaching the reading text according to this method, you must follow five steps:
Beginning of the Preview Scanning lesson
For each Question Question paragraph
End of the lesson Test Calendar
Survey: Scanning the text in order to obtain its general idea through a set of strategies, including:
Check the index if it exists, and create an org chart for the ideas you’ve read.
Read the abstract and / or introduction and conclusion, headlines, pictures, diagrams if any, etc.
If none of the above means, read the first and last sentence of each paragraph for a comprehensive overview.
Questioning: Ask yourself questions about what you have read.
Based on the chapter title or text.
Based on each subtitle.
Based on your previous knowledge.
Reading: (Silent and Outright) Find answers to your previous questions as you read.
Reading tracks of 3-5 minutes.
Read on to find the answer to your questions.
Change your pace: When the text appears to provide answers to your question, slow down and focus on it. Speed up if the material sounds familiar to you.
Guess and read quickly to confirm.
Summarizing: Summarize what you have read in your own words.
Say the answers in your own words out loud.
Shade the most important words and thoughts as you read.
Write key and key words and phrases for each piece or text you read.
Memory when revising
Calendar: evaluate yourself now or in the future.
At the end of the lesson, test yourself on what you just read.
Speak your words through the headings, explain the main ideas and try to answer your questions and the class questions.
Improve the keywords you wrote in your notes, by writing examples if appropriate.
Test yourself again the next day, in a few days, and in a week or more.
An employee is suing his manager because his job is boring
Saraya – In a lawsuit that is the first of its kind, an employee received a financial compensation of $ 45,000, after suing his manager, because of his boring job that made him feel depressed. Frederick Desnard worked as a director of a company specializing in the French perfume industry, based in Paris, as after 4 years of his work he filed a lawsuit against the owner of the company in 2016 for financial compensation. Because his job was so boring and depressed him, and it caused him to have a seizure, which forced him to leave work. Last week, the complainant managed to win the case, as the Paris Court of Appeals found that 48-year-old Frederick Desnard had suffered from patience at work, which is equal to exhaustion at work, according to the Audity Central website.
In a previous interview with France, Desnard stated that he became depressed and ashamed of receiving his salary for not being assigned to tasks throughout his work, adding: “The worst of all is denying this suffering.” He revealed that the French perfume industry had asked him not to do anything for four years, except for tasks he described as a sham, including preparing a new tablet for the company’s CEO, and sending a plumber to his boss’s house.
After reading the above text, answer the following questions:
· What are the expected scenarios for the content of the text in light of your reading of the title only?
Read the first sentence and last sentence of each paragraph and try to reconstruct the text in light of that.
Based on your reading of the text, answer the following questions:
What idea is the text trying to present?
What details did the text mention in support of its basic idea?
Based on your previous information, what do you expect the reasons for suing employees for their managers?
Place two questions whose answers you want to get from the text.
Write two things that you would expect to appear in the text.
Summarize the main idea of the text in a short paragraph in your own words.
Record the most important keywords that help you make an oral presentation about the idea of the text.
Write down the most important idea that the text addressed in your opinion, indicating why.
Compare your previous expectations with what you arrived at after reading and understanding the full text.
Use keywords on related topics.
The teacher can implement this strategy through the participation of learners in developing the five strategic questions: As follows in the previous text:
Survey Scan the text and record the broad ideas.
Question Develop questions whose answers are contained in the text.
Reading Read and shade the important ideas.
The summary wrote down the main idea.
Calendar Test yourself to find out the answers to your previous questions.
Sources and references:
Champion, A. J. (2006). Neuropsychological rehabilitation: A resource for group-based education and intervention. England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Esteria, Asie (w / d). THE ROLE OF PQRST STRATEGY TO IMPROVE READING COMPREHENSION IN INDONESIA: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6f58/295693a0efe3926eac58d4a3371caf3c1f14.pdf
Haeryanto, A.I. 2012. Improving the Reading Comprehension Skills of the Eleventh Graders of MA Nurul Jadid Paiton Probolinggo through PQRST Strategy. Unpublished Thesis. Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang.
Susanti, A. N. R. 2013. Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension Through PQRST Technique at Grade XI of SMA Piri 1 Yogyakarta in the Academic Year of 2012/2013. Unpublished Thesis. Yogyakarta: Yogyakarta State University.
Tankersly, K. 2003. The Threads of Reading: Strategies for Literacy Development. Virginia. ASCD.
Taylor, Christopher (2019). How to Study Using the Preview, Question, Read, Summary, Test or PQRST Method: https://www.wikihow.com/Study-Using-the-Preview,-Question,-Read,-Summary,-Test-or- PQRST-Method